The effectiveness of bromhexine in the treatment of patients with bronchiectasis, in a stage of clinical exacerbation, was assessed in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 88 in-patients. Bronchiectasis was diagnosed by bronchography and/or CT scan. Bromhexine or matched placebo was administered as 30-mg capsules three times daily per os. Ceftazidine, 1 g i.m., was given to all patients once a day for the first week only. Bromhexine seemed to improve the clinical picture, with significantly positive trends for expectoration, quantity of sputum and auscultatory findings. It also increased the FEV1 and was well-tolerated. Both patients and investigators judged it efficacious.