Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a serious complication of chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) given twice daily, 3 days every week is considered the best form of prophylaxis for PCP. We evaluated PCP prophylaxis in all children up to 18 years of age undergoing cancer chemotherapy over a 2-year period. Four children were diagnosed with PCP over 24 months. Two of 12 children on intravenous pentamidine, 1 of 143 on TMP-SMZ and 1 of 36 on dapsone for PCP prophylaxis developed PCP. Intravenous pentamidine may not be as effective as previously considered and should be used with caution.
(c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.