Antioxidant enzymes and diabetic retinopathy

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Apr;1100:199-206. doi: 10.1196/annals.1395.019.


The aim of this study was to discuss the serum copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities with diabetic retinopathy severity. Twenty-five patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR group 1), 25 patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR group 2), and 25 nondiabetic controls (control group) were included in the study. Patients who had macrovascular complications of diabetes (coronary arterial disease, periferic vascular disease) were excluded. The major finding of our study was that we did not observe any differences between group 1 and 2, which we aimed to discuss the severity of diabetic retinopathy. As the levels of SOD and Zn were not different between the groups, statistically significant differences were observed for GSH, NO, and Cu levels when compared to control group. AOPP levels were statistically increased in group 1 compared to control group. It can be suggested that hyperglycemia in DM is associated with accelerated nonenzymatic glycation and oxidative stress.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Copper / blood
  • Diabetes Complications / blood
  • Diabetes Complications / genetics
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / enzymology*
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / genetics*
  • Female
  • Glutathione / blood
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nitric Oxide / blood
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Oxygen / metabolism
  • Superoxide Dismutase / blood
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Zinc / blood


  • Antioxidants
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Copper
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Glutathione
  • Zinc
  • Oxygen