Changes in the demographics and prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Okinawa, Japan (1993 to 2003)

Hypertens Res. 2007 Jan;30(1):55-62. doi: 10.1291/hypres.30.55.


To compare the risk factor demographics and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), we analyzed two databases from the 1993 (N=143,948) and 2003 (N=154,019) mass screenings in Okinawa, Japan (Okinawa General Health Maintenance Association registry). We estimated the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using serum creatinine (SCr) levels. SCr was measured by the modified Jaffe method in 1993 and by enzyme assay in 2003; the relation between the two methods was: SCr (Jaffe) = 0.194 + 1.079 x SCr (enzyme). CKD prevalence was compared using the estimated GFR calculated by the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. SCr was measured in 66.2% (1993) and 69.8% (2003) of the total screenees. Proteinuria was present in 3.4% (1993) and 4.3% (2003) of the total screened population, respectively. The prevalence of CKD (GFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) was similar between the two databases, being 15.7% in 1993 and 15.1% in 2003. However, the demographics of the CKD risk factors changed during the study period. The mean level of systolic blood pressure decreased, whereas the prevalence of obesity and the mean levels of serum cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose increased. In 2003, the estimated prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general population of Japan calculated using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria was 19.1%. The prevalence of CKD was significantly associated with that of metabolic syndrome: the age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio was 1.332 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.277-1.389; p<0.0001). In conclusion, the demographics of the participants of the general screenings in Okinawa, Japan differed between the 1993 and 2003 screenings, but the prevalence of CKD seemed to be similar, or at least did not increase substantially, between the two databases.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Chronic Disease
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Databases, Factual
  • Demography*
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Kidney Diseases / blood
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Diseases / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Proteinuria / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution


  • Creatinine