Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcome of intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and expansile gas injection as a minimally invasive treatment for submacular hemorrhage (SMH).
Methods: This study was a retrospective clinical case series examining 104 eyes that received an intravitreal injection of 30-100 mcg of tPA and expansile gas (SF6 or C3F8) for SMH. The main outcomes evaluated were visual acuities (VA), anatomic displacement of submacular blood, and surgical complications.
Results: : A total of 85, 77, and 81 eyes were available at 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months follow up, respectively. Postoperatively, > or = 2 Snellen lines improvement were achieved in 43/85 eyes (51%) at 1 week, 49/77 eyes (63%) at 3 months, and 52/81 eyes (64%) at 12 months. Postoperative VA improvement was significantly associated with preoperative VA, submacular blood displacement, and the underlying cause of SMH. Diagnostic postoperative angiogram and clinical examination were possible at 8.2 +/- 7.4 weeks and 9.5 +/- 7.4 weeks, respectively. The observed complications included breakthrough vitreous hemorrhage in 8 eyes (8%) and retinal detachment in 3 eyes (3%).
Conclusions: In this retrospective series, intravitreal injection of tPA and expansile gas was shown to be a safe and effective technique that can improve VA in most eyes with SMH and assist in the diagnosis of the underlying cause.