Ramipril has been used in twice daily dose of 5 mg in most heart failure trials, whereas the dose used in Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) study was 10 mg once at bedtime. The HOPE investigators in an ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) substudy observed a fall of nighttime but not daytime blood pressure (BP). We examined the effects of once daily ramipril 10 mg versus 5 mg twice a day. Twenty-nine patients were recruited based on the original criteria for the HOPE study and were given ramipril either in twice-daily dose (5 mg b.d.) or once daily (10 mg o.d.) each morning in randomized, prospective crossover trial. Twenty-four hour ABP recordings were taken just before commencement of ramipril therapy and after treatment with twice-daily and once-daily ramipril. Our results show that ramipril causes a significant reduction of BP over 24-h period as compared with baseline. The mean baseline ABP was 124/73 mm Hg, which reduced to 117/69 mm Hg for the twice-a-day regimen (P<0.001) and 115/68 mm Hg for the once a day regimen (P<0.001). Both regimes effectively lower BP to a similar extent. Ramipril causes significant BP reduction in both once- and twice-daily dosing. The fall in BP after daytime dosing is greater than that observed in the HOPE study (including ABP substudy). Once-daily dosing in the morning seems to be effective in causing a significant reduction in the ABP profile of patients at high-risk of a future vascular event.