We describe the clinical courses of 3 patients with hematologic malignancies (2 with acute myelogenous leukemia and 1 with multiple myeloma) who developed invasive fungal infections due to uncommon molds (Alternaria spp., Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Zygomycetes). Breakthrough invasive fungal infections of the sinus (n=1), lung (n=3), and pericardium (n=1) developed despite fluconazole prophylaxis and failed to respond to treatment with other licensed antifungal therapies, including amphotericin B (n=3), caspofungin (n=2), and voriconazole (n=3), and surgical intervention (n=2). Salvage therapy with posaconazole oral suspension resulted in successful outcomes in all 3 patients, who subsequently underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) while on continued posaconazole therapy. The median duration of posaconazole treatment before HSCT was 5 months (range: 1.5-6 months). Posaconazole salvage therapy allowed successful allogeneic HSCT in 3 patients with refractory invasive mold infections.