Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus infections are the most important causes of chronic liver disease, and the biggest health challenges facing the developing world today. Pakistan is in the intermediate HBV and HCV prevalence area. The health care worker (HCW) is at the forefront of this battle to control this epidemic. From physicians, nurses, to the para-medical staff, the HCW constantly places himself in potential danger, by attending to infected patients. This article reviews the literature available so far on the potential risk of transmission of HBV and HCV both to and from the HCW and makes recommendations for the prevention of such transmission in our working environment.