Genome stability requires correct chromosome segregation and DNA repair. Failure of these processes leads to cell death or accumulation of chromosomal aberrations, as often observed in tumor cells. An increasing number of observations indicate that segregation and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair are functionally connected by the Cohesin and Smc5/6 protein complexes. Through their interaction with the duplicated genome, these complexes play essential roles in both chromosome segregation and repair by sister chromatid recombination. Both are also recruited to DSBs, and their chromosomal association is similarly regulated. Interestingly, recent studies of Cohesin suggest that DSB formation could promote proper mitotic chromosome segregation. This is reminiscent of segregation in meiotic cells, which is facilitated by break-induced chromosomal tethering.