Conventional actin and actin-related proteins (Arps) are members of the actin superfamily and are conserved throughout evolution. Although the cytoskeletal functions of cytoplasmic actin and Arps have been characterized extensively, the functions and mechanisms of nuclear actin and Arps are not yet well understood. Emerging evidence suggest that nuclear actin and Arps are involved in many nuclear processes, such as transcription and chromatin remodeling. Actin and Arps are subunits of multiple chromatin modifying complexes, and functionally contribute to chromatin modifications. Recent progress has been made in understanding nuclear actin and Arps in the context of chromatin regulation, suggesting potential mechanisms for their functions.