Use of array CGH in the evaluation of dysmorphology, malformations, developmental delay, and idiopathic mental retardation

Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2007 Jun;17(3):182-92. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2007.04.009. Epub 2007 Apr 30.


The clinical implementation of array comparative genomic hybridization has revolutionized the diagnosis of patients with syndromic or nonsyndromic mental retardation. Multiple studies of hundreds of patients with idiopathic mental retardation, and normal karyotype and/or subtelomeric testing using genome-wide microarray platforms with approximately 2000 to >30,000 (tiling-path) interrogating BAC/PAC probes have detected chromosome abnormalities in up to 17% of cases. Surprisingly, some of the pathogenic changes are mosaic and not detectable in conventional karyotyping. Commercially available genome-wide microarrays with >300,000 synthesized oligonucleotide probes enable higher resolution and sensitivity and will probably replace the BAC/PAC arrays in clinical laboratories.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Congenital Abnormalities / diagnosis
  • Congenital Abnormalities / genetics*
  • Developmental Disabilities / diagnosis
  • Developmental Disabilities / genetics*
  • Gene Dosage / genetics
  • Genome / genetics
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability / diagnosis
  • Intellectual Disability / genetics*
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization / methods*
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods*