Overweight and obesity are increasing problems in many countries and are related to multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although imaging techniques can determine total body fat and its distribution reliably, anthropometric measurements remain important in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between some anthropometric measurements and dyslipidemia as an important cardiovascular risk factor in Iranian population. A total of 750 subjects (580 females and 170 males) were selected by multistage random sampling from residents of Arak (Iran) and related villages in 2005. None of them had any significant past medical history. Body mass index(BMI), waist circumference(WC), and waist to height ratio(W/Ht) of subjects were measured to identify their relationship with their lipid profile including total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol(TC/HDL-C). Fasting blood sugar (FBS) was also measured. WC and W/Ht showed greater correlation with TC, TG, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C level than did BMI. Among lipid profile, TG showed the closest correlation with W/Ht (r=0.309, p<0.001) and WC (r=0.308, p<0.001). HDL-C level did not show any statistical relationship with W/Ht, but it was weakly correlated with WC (r=-0.088, p<0.05). None of the indices showed any association with FBS level. It can be concluded that W/Ht and WC can best predict dyslipidemia in an Iranian adult population. We suggest using both W/Ht and WC as inexpensive and easy methods in clinical and epidemiological fields.