Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a highly prevalent disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Periodontal disease has been suggested to influence this disease and has been associated with CAD in some epidemiologic studies. However, this relation is still controversial. This study aimed to determine the relationship between periodontal disease measures and CAD and acute coronary syndromes (ACSs).
Methods: Two hundred one patients presenting with stable angina or ACS referred for coronary angiography underwent a periodontal assessment including evaluation of periodontal pathogens. Severity of CAD was determined by the number of obstructed coronary arteries.
Results: Patients with severe CAD defined by multiple vessel disease had significantly more periodontal destruction than those with mild CAD, as shown by mean clinical attachment level, a measure of chronic periodontal disease (CAL; 5.43 +/- 1.8 versus 4.85 +/- 1.6; P = 0.02), percentage of teeth with CAL >or=5 mm (82.1 +/- 23.4 versus 70.4 +/- 26.9; P = 0.002), and number of missing teeth (8.75 +/- 6.6 versus 6.76 +/- 6.6; P = 0.03). Logistic regression analysis showed that percentage of teeth with CAL >or=5 mm was significantly associated with CAD severity. Patients with ACS had significantly higher plaque scores, gingival index, and Porphyromonas gingivalis counts than stable patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that either plaque score or percentage of P. gingivalis was significantly associated with ACS.
Conclusion: Periodontal destruction measures are significantly correlated with CAD severity, whereas periodontal infectious measures are significantly associated with clinical cardiac status.