Purpose: This multi-institutional phase I trial was designed to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of cilengitide (EMD 121974) and to evaluate the use of perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.
Patients and methods: Patients received cilengitide twice weekly on a continuous basis. A treatment cycle was defined as 4 weeks. Treatment-related dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as any grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxicity or grade 4 hematologic toxicity of any duration.
Results: A total of 51 patients were enrolled in cohorts of six patients to doses of 120, 240, 360, 480, 600, 1,200, 1,800, and 2,400 mg/m2 administered as a twice weekly intravenous infusion. Three patients progressed early and were inevaluable for toxicity assessment. The DLTs observed were one thrombosis (120 mg/m2), one grade 4 joint and bone pain (480 mg/m2), one thrombocytopenia (600 mg/m2) and one anorexia, hypoglycemia, and hyponatremia (800 mg/m2). The MTD was not reached. Two patients demonstrated complete response, three patients had partial response, and four patients had stable disease. Perfusion MRI revealed a significant relationship between the change in tumor relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) from baseline and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve after 16 weeks of therapy.
Conclusion: Cilengitide is well tolerated to doses of 2,400 mg/m2, durable complete and partial responses were seen in this phase I study, and clinical response appears related to rCBF changes.