Development and applications of surface-activated chemical ionization

Mass Spectrom Rev. Sep-Oct 2007;26(5):645-56. doi: 10.1002/mas.20143.


This review regards the recently developed ionization source named surface-activated chemical ionization (SACI) that employs an interaction with a surface placed at low voltage for the activation of the ionization of sample molecules to increase the sensitivity in the analysis of various compounds of biological and clinical interest. These results are due to the strong chemical noise decrease and the increase of ionization efficiency. This ionization source has been employed for the analysis of various compounds of different molecular mass and polarity (addicted and pharmaceutical drugs, amino acids, steroids, peptides, and proteins). The SACI development theoretical mechanism, benefits, disadvantages, applications, and future developments are reported and discussed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Electrochemistry / instrumentation*
  • Electrochemistry / methods*
  • Electrochemistry / trends
  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization / instrumentation*
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization / methods*
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization / trends
  • Surface Properties