Dynamic neuromuscular analysis training for preventing anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes

Instr Course Lect. 2007;56:397-406.


Female athletes are four to six times more likely to sustain an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than male athletes. Since the enactment of Title IX, male athletic participation at the high school level has remained steady (3.8 million), whereas female athletic participation has increased tenfold (from 0.3 to 3.0 million). Geometric growth in athletic participation and the higher injury rate in female athletes have led to gender inequity in ACL injury rates. Most ACL injuries occur as a result of noncontact mechanisms such as during landing from a jump or while making a lateral pivot. Dynamic knee instability, caused by ligament dominance (decreased dynamic neuromuscular control of the joint), quadriceps dominance (decreased hamstring strength and recruitment), and leg dominance (side-to-side differences in strength and coordination) may be responsible for gender inequity in ACL injury rates.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Exercise / physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Knee Injuries / epidemiology
  • Knee Injuries / physiopathology
  • Knee Injuries / prevention & control*
  • Knee Joint / physiology
  • Male
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology
  • Sex Factors