The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has mandated that all residency training programs teach and assess new competencies including professionalism. This article reviews the literature on medical professionalism, describes good practices gleaned from published works, and proposes an implementation matrix of specific tools for teaching and assessing professionalism in ophthalmology residency. Professionalism requirements have been defined by the ACGME, subspecialty organizations, and other certifying and credentialing organizations. Teaching, role modeling, and assessing the competency of professionalism are important tasks in managing the ACGME mandate. Future work should focus on the field testing of tools for validity, reliability, feasibility, and cost-effectiveness.