Effect of static and ballistic stretching on the muscle-tendon tissue properties

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Mar;39(3):494-501. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000247004.40212.f7.


Purpose: Many studies have been undertaken to define the effects of static and ballistic stretching. However, most researchers have focused their attention on joint range-of-motion measures. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether static- and ballistic-stretching programs had different effects on passive resistive torque measured during isokinetic passive motion of the ankle joint and tendon stiffness measured by ultrasound imaging.

Methods: Eighty-one healthy subjects were randomized into three groups: a static-stretch group, a ballistic-stretch group, and a control group. Both stretching groups performed a 6-wk stretching program for the calf muscles. Before and after this period, all subjects were evaluated for ankle range of motion, passive resistive torque of the plantar flexors, and the stiffness of the Achilles tendon.

Results: The results of the study reveal that the dorsiflexion range of motion was increased significantly in all groups. Static stretching resulted in a significant decrease of the passive resistive torque, but there was no change in Achilles tendon stiffness. In contrast, ballistic stretching had no significant effect on the passive resistive torque of the plantar flexors. However, a significant decrease in stiffness of the Achilles tendon was observed in the ballistic-stretch group.

Conclusion: These findings provide evidence that static and ballistic stretching have different effects on passive resistive torque and tendon stiffness, and both types of stretching should be considered for training and rehabilitation programs.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Achilles Tendon / physiology*
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Muscle Contraction / physiology*
  • Muscle Spindles / physiology*
  • Muscle Stretching Exercises*
  • Muscles / physiology*
  • Pliability*
  • Range of Motion, Articular*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Torque