Metabolomic alterations in elicitor treated Silybum marianum suspension cultures monitored by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

J Biotechnol. 2007 Jun 15;130(2):133-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2007.03.007. Epub 2007 Mar 12.


A comprehensive metabolomic profiling of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaernt cell cultures elicited with yeast extract or methyl jasmonate for the production of silymarin was carried out using one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. With these techniques we were able to detect both temporal quantitative variations in the metabolite pool in yeast extract-elicited cultures and qualitative differences in cultures treated with the two types of elicitors. Yeast extract and methyl jasmonate caused a metabolic reprogramming that affected amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism; upon elicitation sucrose decreased and glucose levels increased, these changes being dependent on "de novo" protein synthesis. Also dependent on protein synthesis were the increase seen in alanine and glutamine in elicited cultures. Yeast extract differentially acted on threonine and valine metabolism and promoted accumulation of choline and alpha-linolenic acid in cells thus suggesting its action on membranes and the involvement of the octadecanoid pathway in the induction of silymarin in S. marianum cultures. Phenylpropanoid metabolism was altered by elicitation but, depending on elicitor, different phenylpropanoid profile was produced. The results obtained in this study will permit in the future to identify candidate components of the signalling pathway involved in the stimulation of the constitutive pathway of silymarin.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetates / pharmacology*
  • Alanine / biosynthesis
  • Amino Acids / metabolism
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism / drug effects
  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Choline / biosynthesis
  • Cycloheximide / pharmacology
  • Cyclopentanes / pharmacology*
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Glutamic Acid / biosynthesis
  • Milk Thistle / cytology*
  • Milk Thistle / metabolism*
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular*
  • Oxylipins
  • Plant Growth Regulators / pharmacology*
  • Protein Synthesis Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Silymarin / metabolism
  • Sucrose / metabolism
  • Yeasts / chemistry
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid / biosynthesis


  • Acetates
  • Amino Acids
  • Cyclopentanes
  • Oxylipins
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
  • Silymarin
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid
  • Glutamic Acid
  • Sucrose
  • methyl jasmonate
  • Cycloheximide
  • Glucose
  • Choline
  • Alanine