Objective: We examined the relationship of in vivo insulin sensitivity to the components of the metabolic syndrome and biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in youth.
Research design and methods: Subjects included 216 youths (8-19 years of age) who participated in a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp.
Results: Independent of race, the frequencies of central obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL, high blood pressure, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the lowest versus highest quartile of insulin sensitivity. BMI, abdominal adiposity, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides increased and adiponectin and HDL decreased significantly (P for trend for all <0.05), with decreasing insulin sensitivity in both races. After controlling for BMI, insulin resistance remained associated (P < 0.05) with visceral adipose tissue in both races (P for trend = 0.01 in blacks and 0.08 in whites). In whites but not blacks, lower insulin sensitivity was associated (P < 0.05) with higher intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin levels; however, these relationships did not remain significant (P > 0.05) once visceral adipose tissue was controlled for.
Conclusions: The prevalence of the individual components of metabolic syndrome increases with decreasing insulin sensitivity in black and white youth. In whites but not blacks, insulin resistance is associated with increased circulating endothelial biomarkers. It remains to be determined if lower abdominal adiposity and triglycerides in blacks underlies the racial differences in risk translation.