Intracoronary streptokinase after primary percutaneous coronary intervention

N Engl J Med. 2007 May 3;356(18):1823-34. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa054374.


Background: Microvascular perfusion is often impaired after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We proposed that in situ thrombosis might contribute to poor myocardial perfusion in this setting. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of low-dose intracoronary streptokinase administered immediately after primary PCI.

Methods: Forty-one patients undergoing primary PCI were randomly assigned to receive intracoronary streptokinase (250 kU) or no additional therapy. Two days later, cardiac catheterization was repeated, and coronary hemodynamic end points were measured with the use of a guidewire tipped with pressure and temperature sensors. In patients with anterior myocardial infarction, the deceleration time of coronary diastolic flow was measured with transthoracic echocardiography. At 6 months, angiography, echocardiography, and technetium-99m single-photon-emission computed tomography were performed.

Results: Two days after PCI, all measures of microvascular function (means +/-SD) were significantly better in the streptokinase group than in the control group, including coronary flow reserve (2.01+/-0.57 vs. 1.39+/-0.31), the index of microvascular resistance (16.29+/-5.06 U vs. 32.49+/-11.04 U), the collateral-flow index (0.08+/-0.05 vs. 0.17+/-0.07), mean coronary wedge pressure (10.81+/-5.46 mm Hg vs. 17.20+/-7.93 mm Hg), systolic coronary wedge pressure (18.24+/-6.07 mm Hg vs. 33.80+/-11.00 mm Hg), and diastolic deceleration time (828+/-258 msec vs. 360+/-292 msec). The administration of intracoronary streptokinase was also associated with a significantly lower corrected Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction frame count (the number of cine frames required for dye to travel from the ostium of a coronary artery to a standardized distal coronary landmark) at 2 days. At 6 months, however, there was no evidence of a difference between the two study groups in left ventricular size or function.

Conclusions: In our pilot trial, the administration of low-dose intracoronary streptokinase immediately after primary PCI improved myocardial reperfusion but not long-term left ventricular size or function. These findings require clarification in a larger trial. ( number, NCT00302419.)

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary*
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Capillary Resistance / drug effects
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Circulation / drug effects*
  • Female
  • Fibrinolytic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Heart Ventricles / drug effects
  • Heart Ventricles / pathology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Microcirculation / drug effects
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / drug therapy
  • Myocardial Infarction / physiopathology
  • Myocardial Infarction / therapy*
  • Myocardial Reperfusion
  • Pilot Projects
  • Streptokinase / administration & dosage*
  • Ventricular Function, Left


  • Fibrinolytic Agents
  • Streptokinase

Associated data