Effect of early menopause on bone mineral density and fractures

Menopause. 2007 May-Jun;14(3 Pt 2):567-71. doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e31804c793d.


Objective: To review the data on the effect of early menopause on bone. Do women undergoing early menopause develop lower bone mineral density at an earlier age and do they have a higher incidence of osteoporotic fractures? Is there a difference on bone between women who undergo early natural menopause compared to women who have early menopause after oophorectomy?

Results: The earlier in life that menopause occurs, the lower the bone density will be later in life. Low bone density is associated with a higher fracture rate, and several studies show a relationship between early menopause, oophorectomy, and an increase in osteoporotic fractures.

Conclusions: Early menopause is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Women with an early menopause should have bone density testing performed within 10 years of menopause so that osteopenia or osteoporosis will be diagnosed early and appropriate anti-resorptive therapy initiated.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bone Density / physiology*
  • Female
  • Fractures, Spontaneous / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Menopause, Premature / physiology*
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / diagnosis
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / physiopathology*
  • Ovariectomy / adverse effects*
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors