The prevalence of malnutrition in the course of chronic kidney disease has not changed recently and is still between 30 and 50%. About 10% of patients on maintenance dialysis show signs of severe malnutrition. Recent progress has been made on protein metabolism, the validation of new diagnostic tools, and the use of anabolic compounds. Large clinical trials have characterized the use of medications for renutrition, and international guidelines are currently updated. Neverthless, physicians will be mostly efficient at the stage of malnutrition prevention, by implementing an early, interactive dietary and nutritional care programs in close collaboration with specialized dietitians.