Artificial selection has created myriad breeds of domestic animals, each characterized by unique phenotypes pertaining to behavior, morphology, physiology, and disease. Most domestic animal populations share features with isolated founder populations, making them well suited for positional cloning. Genome sequences are now available for most domestic species, and with them a panoply of tools including high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism panels. As a result, domestic animal populations are becoming invaluable resources for studying the molecular architecture of complex traits and of adaptation. Here we review recent progress and issues in the positional identification of genes underlying complex traits in domestic animals. As many phenotypes studied in animals are quantitative, we focus on mapping, fine mapping, and cloning of quantitative trait loci.