Relation between soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, homocysteine, and fibrinogen levels and race/ethnicity in women without cardiovascular disease

Am J Cardiol. 2007 May 1;99(9):1246-51. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.12.041. Epub 2007 Mar 15.


Although certain markers of inflammation and hemostasis are elevated in persons at risk of future cardiovascular events, data assessing the relation between inflammatory and hemostatic markers of vascular risk and race/ethnicity are limited. Thus, in a cross-sectional analysis of the Women's Health Study (WHS), baseline soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), homocysteine, and fibrinogen were measured in 23,687 women without a history of cardiovascular disease. In 22,677 white, 242 Hispanic, 428 black, and 340 Asian women, the distribution of median ICAM-1 levels was significantly lower in black (311.9 ng/ml, interquartile range [IQR] 220.1 to 380.0) and Asian (312.7 ng/ml, IQR 267.3 to 362.3) women than white (343.1 ng/ml, IQR 301.9 to 394.9) and Hispanic (351.9 ng/ml, IQR 305.9 to 404.2) women (p <0.001). Although homocysteine was marginally lower in Asian women (p = 0.05), fibrinogen was higher in black women than their counterparts. After controlling for body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, alcohol use, family history of myocardial infarction, education, hormone use, and lipids, ICAM-1 remained significantly lower in black and Asian women. Meanwhile, homocysteine was lower in Asian women and fibrinogen remained higher in black women than their counterparts. In conclusion, this cross-sectional analysis shows that baseline fibrinogen, ICAM-1, and homocysteine vary by self-reported race/ethnicity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Ethnicity*
  • Female
  • Fibrinogen / metabolism*
  • Health Status
  • Homocysteine / blood*
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / blood*
  • Middle Aged
  • Postmenopause / blood
  • Whites*


  • Homocysteine
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Fibrinogen