This paper reviews European trends regarding young drivers' accident risk and the effects of countermeasures. Young driver risk differs between countries, and has improved in the last decade, probably as a result of general improvements in road safety levels. Young male drivers' relative risk is rising, indicating that current policies are less effective for males than for females. Further research is needed to understand the causes of this development. In Europe, most countries are moving toward multiphase licensing systems, including elements like accompanied driving, protective measures, and probation periods. European evaluation studies show mixed results regarding these elements, pointing to a need for more research into the effective components.