Purpose: The aim of this statement is to present current and comprehensive recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
Methods: A formal literature search of Medline was performed through the end date of August 2006. The results of this search were complemented by additional articles on related issues known to the writing committee. Data were synthesized with the use of evidence tables. The American Heart Association Stroke Council's Levels of Evidence grading algorithm was used to grade each recommendation. Prerelease review of the draft guideline was performed by 5 expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council Leadership Committee. It is intended that this guideline be fully updated in 3 years' time.
Results: Evidence-based guidelines are presented for the diagnosis of intracerebral hemorrhage, the management of increased arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure, the treatment of medical complications of intracerebral hemorrhage, and the prevention of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage. Recent trials of recombinant factor VII to slow initial bleeding are discussed. Recommendations for various surgical approaches for treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage are presented. Finally, withdrawal-of-care and end-of-life issues in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage are examined.