Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that represents the primary cause of heart disease and stroke. The recruitment of inflammatory cells in the intima is an essential step in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. This process is triggered by local production of chemokines and chemokine receptors from activated endothelial cells and inflammatory cells. Various members of the CC chemokine family (e.g. MCP-1/CCL2) as well as CXC family (e.g. IL-8/CCL8, IP-10/CXCL10, SDF-1/CXCL12) and, more recently, fractalkine/CX3CL1 have been implicated in atherosclerosis development. Latest findings in animal models suggest that blocking chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions may serve as a suitable approach to treat atherosclerosis. Likewise, chemokine antagonists that inhibit leukocyte recruitment could particularly be interesting to treat inflammation in response to myocardial infarction, the major consequence of atherosclerosis.