Central action of leptin on food intake and energy expenditure is integrated with leptin's peripheral action modulating the fatty acid and glucose metabolism and preventing the accumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues. However, exact mechanism(s) of the leptin's action in the peripheral tissues has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a single intravenous injection of leptin on palmitoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-carnitine oxidation rate in liver and skeletal muscle followed by measurements of the carnitine-palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1) activity and activities of ss-oxidation enzymes in mitochondria (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) and in peroxisomes (acyl-CoA oxidase) of rats. Animals were euthanized and tissues and serum harvested 15 min, 1 hour, 3 hours and 6 hours after leptin administration. Intravenous leptin injection increased mitochondrial palmitoyl-CoA oxidation rate in both liver (95%; P<0.025) and skeletal muscle (2.7-fold; P<0.05). This was paralleled by lowering hepatic (-156%; P<0.001) and skeletal muscle (-191%; P<0.001) triglyceride content. Leptin-induced elevation of palmitoyl-CoA oxidation rate in liver was paralleled by increased CPT1 activity (52%; P<0.05) and ss-oxidation capacity (52%; P<0.05). Lack of the leptin's effect on the CPT1-activity in muscle (20%; p=0.09) suggests the existence of an alternative pathway for increasing the palmitoyl-CoA-oxidation rate bypassing the CPT1 regulatory step. Interestingly, leptin stimulated the overall ss-oxidation capacity in muscle by 69% (P=0.027). This may indicate to an involvement of mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenases as well as of peroxisomal fat catabolism. Taken together, we showed that leptin acutely increases palmitoyl-CoA oxidation rate in liver and in skeletal muscle, which was associated with tissue specific effect on the CPT1 activity as well as on the downstream enzymes of fatty acid oxidation pathways in rat mitochondria and peroxisomes. Tangible evidence for the leptin-induced increase of fatty acid catabolism was provided by a lowered skeletal muscle and hepatic lipid deposition.