Dissociative effects of true and false recall as a function of different encoding strategies

Memory. 2007 Jan;15(1):93-103. doi: 10.1080/09658210601109144.


Goodwin, Meissner, and Ericsson (2001) proposed a path model in which elaborative encoding predicted the likelihood of verbalisation of critical, nonpresented words at encoding, which in turn predicted the likelihood of false recall. The present study tested this model of false recall experimentally with a manipulation of encoding strategy and the implementation of the process-tracing technique of protocol analysis. Findings indicated that elaborative encoding led to more verbalisations of critical items during encoding than rote rehearsal of list items, but false recall rates were reduced under elaboration conditions (Experiment 2). Interestingly, false recall was more likely to occur when items were verbalised during encoding than not verbalised (Experiment 1), and participants tended to reinstate their encoding strategies during recall, particularly after elaborative encoding (Experiment 1). Theoretical implications for the interplay of encoding and retrieval processes of false recall are discussed.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Cognition / physiology*
  • Cues*
  • Humans
  • Mental Recall / physiology*
  • Semantics
  • Verbal Learning*