Roles of cyclic diguanylate in the regulation of bacterial pathogenesis

Annu Rev Microbiol. 2007;61:131-48. doi: 10.1146/annurev.micro.61.080706.093426.


Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger of growing recognition involved in the regulation of a number of complex physiological processes. This review describes the biosynthesis and hydrolysis of c-di-GMP and several mechanisms of regulation of c-di-GMP metabolism. The contribution of c-di-GMP to regulating biofilm formation and motility, processes that affect pathogenesis of many bacteria, is described, as is c-di-GMP regulation of virulence gene expression. Finally, ways in which c-di-GMP may mediate these regulatory effects are proposed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria / pathogenicity*
  • Biofilms
  • Cyclic GMP / analogs & derivatives*
  • Cyclic GMP / chemistry
  • Cyclic GMP / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
  • Hydrolysis
  • Movement
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Virulence / genetics


  • bis(3',5')-cyclic diguanylic acid
  • Cyclic GMP