Using genomic technologies, it is now possible to address research hypotheses in the context of entire developmental or biochemical pathways, gene networks, and chromosomal location of relevant genes and their inferred evolutionary history. Through a range of platforms, researchers can survey an entire transcriptome under a variety of experimental and field conditions. Interpretation of such data has led to new insights and revealed previously undescribed phenomena. In the area of plant-pathogen interactions, transcript profiling has provided unparalleled perception into the mechanisms underlying gene-for-gene resistance and basal defense, host vs nonhost resistance, biotrophy vs necrotrophy, and pathogenicity of vascular vs nonvascular pathogens, among many others. In this way, genomic technologies have facilitated a system-wide approach to unifying themes and unique features in the interactions of hosts and pathogens.