Synaptic activity regulates the postsynaptic accumulation of AMPA receptors over timescales ranging from minutes to days. Indeed, the regulated trafficking and mobility of GluR1 AMPA receptors underlies many forms of synaptic potentiation at glutamatergic synapses throughout the brain. However, the basis for synapse-specific accumulation of GluR1 is unknown. Here we report that synaptic activity locally immobilizes GluR1 AMPA receptors at individual synapses. Using single-molecule tracking together with the silencing of individual presynaptic boutons, we demonstrate that local synaptic activity reduces diffusional exchange of GluR1 between synaptic and extraynaptic domains, resulting in postsynaptic accumulation of GluR1. At neighboring inactive synapses, GluR1 is highly mobile with individual receptors frequently escaping the synapse. Within the synapse, spontaneous activity confines the diffusional movement of GluR1 to restricted subregions of the postsynaptic membrane. Thus, local activity restricts GluR1 mobility on a submicron scale, defining an input-specific mechanism for regulating AMPA receptor composition and abundance.