ER chaperones in mammalian development and human diseases

FEBS Lett. 2007 Jul 31;581(19):3641-51. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2007.04.045. Epub 2007 Apr 25.


The field of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in mammalian cells has expanded rapidly during the past decade, contributing to understanding of the molecular pathways that allow cells to adapt to perturbations in ER homeostasis. One major mechanism is mediated by molecular ER chaperones which are critical not only for quality control of proteins processed in the ER, but also for regulation of ER signaling in response to ER stress. Here, we summarized the properties and functions of GRP78/BiP, GRP94/gp96, GRP170/ORP150, GRP58/ERp57, PDI, ERp72, calnexin, calreticulin, EDEM, Herp and co-chaperones SIL1 and P58(IPK) and their role in development and diseases. Many of the new insights are derived from recently constructed mouse models where the genes encoding the chaperones are genetically altered, providing invaluable tools for examining the physiological involvement of the ER chaperones in vivo.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Toxins / metabolism
  • Disease*
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism*
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP
  • Growth and Development*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Molecular Chaperones / genetics
  • Molecular Chaperones / metabolism*
  • Protein Folding


  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP
  • HSPA5 protein, human
  • Hspa5 protein, mouse
  • Molecular Chaperones