Management of beta-adrenergic blocker and calcium channel antagonist toxicity

Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2007 May;25(2):309-31; abstract viii. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2007.02.001.


State-of-the-art therapy for beta-adrenergic receptor blocker and calcium channel antagonist toxicity is reviewed in the light of new insights into drug-induced shock. A brief discussion of pathophysiology, including cardiac, hemodynamic, and metabolic effects of cardiac drug toxicity, provides a foundation for understanding the basis of therapy. The major focus of this review is a critical evaluation of antidotal use of calcium, glucagon, catecholamines, insulin-euglycemia, and other novel therapies based on investigational studies and cumulative clinical experience.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / adverse effects*
  • Antidotes / therapeutic use*
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / adverse effects*
  • Calcium Gluconate / blood
  • Calcium Gluconate / therapeutic use*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / chemically induced
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / drug therapy
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / physiopathology
  • Catecholamines / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Overdose
  • Humans
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Resuscitation / methods
  • Sodium Bicarbonate / therapeutic use*


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Antidotes
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Catecholamines
  • Sodium Bicarbonate
  • Calcium Gluconate