Phytochemical analysis and in vitro evaluation of the biological activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) of Cedrus libani A. Rich

Phytomedicine. 2008 Jan;15(1-2):79-83. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2007.03.013. Epub 2007 May 4.


Cedrus libani are widely used as traditional medicine in Lebanon for treatment of different infection diseases. In the present study we reported the phytochemical composition analyzed by GC-MS of wood essential oil and cones and leaves ethanol extracts. The main components of wood essential oil were himachalol (22.50%), beta-himachalene (21.90%), and alpha-himachalene (10.50%). Leaves ethanol extract was characterized by a high content of germacrene d (29.40%). The same extract obtained from cones essentially contained alpha-pinene (51.0%) and beta-myrcene (13.0%). Moreover, we investigated extracts, essential oil, and identified compounds for their in vitro antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay in Vero cells. Cones and leaves ethanol extracts exhibited an interesting activity with IC50 of 0.50 and 0.66 mg/ml, respectively, at non-cytotoxic concentration. A comparable activity was found when essential oil was tested (IC50 of 0.44 mg/ml).

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cedrus / chemistry*
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Herpesvirus 1, Human / drug effects*
  • Herpesvirus 1, Human / physiology
  • Inhibitory Concentration 50
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Oils, Volatile / chemistry
  • Oils, Volatile / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Terpenes / analysis
  • Toxicity Tests, Acute
  • Vero Cells
  • Virus Replication / drug effects*
  • Wood / chemistry


  • Oils, Volatile
  • Plant Extracts
  • Terpenes