Objectives: To assess the risk of hospitalization for pyelonephritis within the first year of life among infants with and without antenatal hydronephrosis.
Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using linked birth-hospital discharge records from Washington State for 1987 to 2002 to evaluate the risk of hospitalization in the first year of life for pyelonephritis among infants with and without hydronephrosis. Eligible infants had mothers who had prenatal ultrasound screening. A total of 522 singleton infants with antenatal hydronephrosis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 753.2) at the birth hospitalization were identified. For comparison, 2610 singletons without hydronephrosis were selected. We screened hospital discharge records for 1 year after delivery to identify hospitalizations for pyelonephritis and estimate the relative risk (RR) among infants with and without hydronephrosis.
Results: Five percent of infants with antenatal hydronephrosis and 1% of those without had pyelonephritis-related hospitalizations in their first year (RR 11.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.8 to 20.5). Among girls the RR was 36.3 (95% CI 10.6 to 124.0); among boys it was 5.3 (95% CI 2.2 to 13.1). In infants with hydronephrosis, girls were more likely to be hospitalized with pyelonephritis (odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.9).
Conclusions: Infants with antenatal hydronephrosis are nearly 12 times more likely to have pyelonephritis-related hospitalizations in the first year of life. This association is stronger in girls. Parents and healthcare providers of infants with this diagnosis should be vigilant for the signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections.