Siglecs are vertebrate cell-surface receptors that recognize sialylated glycans. Here we have identified and characterized a novel Siglec, named Siglec-15. Siglec-15 is a type-I transmembrane protein consisting of: (i) two immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, (ii) a transmembrane domain containing a lysine residue, and (iii) a short cytoplasmic tail. Siglec-15 is expressed on macrophages and/or dendritic cells of human spleen and lymph nodes. We show that the extracellular domain of Siglec-15 preferentially recognizes the Neu5Acalpha2-6GalNAcalpha- structure. Siglec-15 associates with the activating adaptor proteins DNAX activation protein (DAP)12 and DAP10 via its lysine residue in the transmembrane domain, implying that it functions as an activating signaling molecule. Siglec-15 is the second human Siglec identified to have an activating signaling potential; unlike Siglec-14, however, it does not have an inhibitory counterpart. Orthologs of Siglec-15 are present not only in mammals but also in other branches of vertebrates; in contrast, no other known Siglec expressed in the immune system has been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. Thus, Siglec-15 probably plays a conserved, regulatory role in the immune system of vertebrates.