The MYST family of histone acetyltransferases is highly conserved in eukaryotes and is responsible for the majority of acetylation events. These enzymes are exclusively found in multisubunit protein complexes, which structure is also very well conserved. Recent studies have shed light on the precise functions of these HAT complexes. They play critical roles in gene-specific transcription regulation, DNA damage response and repair, as well as DNA replication. Such roles in basic nuclear functions suggest that alteration of these MYST HAT complexes could lead to malfunctioning cells, leading to cell death, uncontrolled growth and/or disease. Indeed, many of these enzymes and their associated factors have been implicated in several forms of cancers. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on MYST HAT complexes, their functions and link to human diseases.