An enteric occult reflex underlies accommodation and slow transit in the distal large bowel

Gastroenterology. 2007 May;132(5):1912-24. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2007.02.047. Epub 2007 Feb 23.


Background & aims: Transit of fecal material through the human colon takes > or =30 hours, whereas transit through the small intestine takes 24 hours. The mechanisms underlying colonic storage and slow transit have yet to be elucidated. Our aim was to determine whether an intrinsic neural mechanism underlies these phenomena.

Methods: Recordings were made from circular muscle (CM) cells and myenteric neurons in the isolated guinea pig distal colon using intracellular recordings and Ca(2+) imaging techniques. Video imaging was used to determine the effects of colonic filling and pellet transit.

Results: Circumferential stretch generated ongoing oral excitatory and anal inhibitory junction potentials in the CM. The application of longitudinal stretch inhibited all junction potentials. N-omega-nitro-L-arginine (100 micromol/L) completely reversed the inhibitory effects of longitudinal stretch suggesting that nitric oxide (NO) inhibited interneurons controlling peristaltic circuits. Ca(2+) imaging in preparations that were stretched in both axes revealed ongoing firing in nNOS +ve descending neurons, even when synaptic transmission was blocked. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials were evoked in mechanosensitive interneurons that were blocked by N-omega-nitro-L-arginine (100 micromol/L). Pellet transit was inhibited by longitudinal stretch. Filling the colon with fluid led to colonic elongation and an inhibition of motility.

Conclusions: Our data support the novel hypothesis that slow transit and accommodation are generated by release of NO from descending (nNOS +ve) interneurons triggered by colonic elongation. We refer to this powerful inhibitory reflex as the intrinsic occult reflex (hidden from observation) because it withdraws motor activity from the muscle.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Action Potentials / drug effects
  • Animals
  • Colon / cytology
  • Colon / innervation*
  • Colon / physiology*
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Motility / physiology*
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Interneurons / physiology
  • Male
  • Mechanoreceptors / physiology
  • Muscle Contraction / drug effects
  • Muscle Contraction / physiology
  • Muscle, Smooth / cytology
  • Muscle, Smooth / innervation
  • Muscle, Smooth / physiology
  • Myenteric Plexus / physiology
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism*
  • Nitroarginine / pharmacology
  • Peristalsis / physiology*
  • Reflex
  • Synaptic Transmission / physiology


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Nitroarginine
  • Nitric Oxide