Frog: a FRee Online druG 3D conformation generator

Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jul;35(Web Server issue):W568-72. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkm289. Epub 2007 May 7.


In silico screening methods based on the 3D structures of the ligands or of the proteins have become an essential tool to facilitate the drug discovery process. To achieve such process, the 3D structures of the small chemical compounds have to be generated. In addition, for ligand-based screening computations or hierarchical structure-based screening projects involving a rigid-body docking step, it is necessary to generate multi-conformer 3D models for each input ligand to increase the efficiency of the search. However, most academic or commercial compound collections are delivered in 1D SMILES (simplified molecular input line entry system) format or in 2D SDF (structure data file), highlighting the need for free 1D/2D to 3D structure generators. Frog is an on-line service aimed at generating 3D conformations for drug-like compounds starting from their 1D or 2D descriptions. Given the atomic constitution of the molecules and connectivity information, Frog can identify the different unambiguous isomers corresponding to each compound, and generate single or multiple low-to-medium energy 3D conformations, using an assembly process that does not presently consider ring flexibility. Tests show that Frog is able to generate bioactive conformations close to those observed in crystallographic complexes. Frog can be accessed at

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Chemistry / methods
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical / methods
  • Computational Biology / methods*
  • Computer Simulation
  • Crystallography, X-Ray / methods*
  • Databases, Protein
  • Ligands
  • Models, Chemical
  • Molecular Conformation
  • Molecular Structure*
  • Pliability
  • Proteins / chemistry*
  • Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Software


  • Ligands
  • Proteins