Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV drug abuse and dependence in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 May;64(5):566-76. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.64.5.566.


Background: Current and comprehensive information on the epidemiology of DSM-IV 12-month and lifetime drug use disorders in the United States has not been available.

Objectives: To present detailed information on drug abuse and dependence prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity with other Axis I and II disorders.

Design, setting, and participants: Face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in a large representative sample of US adults (N=43093).

Main outcome measures: Twelve-month and lifetime prevalence of drug abuse and dependence and the associated correlates, treatment rates, disability, and comorbidity with other Axis I and II disorders.

Results: Prevalences of 12-month and lifetime drug abuse (1.4% and 7.7%, respectively) exceeded rates of drug dependence (0.6% and 2.6%, respectively). Rates of abuse and dependence were generally greater among men, Native Americans, respondents aged 18 to 44 years, those of lower socioeconomic status, those residing in the West, and those who were never married or widowed, separated, or divorced (all P<.05). Associations of drug use disorders with other substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder were diminished but remained strong when we controlled for psychiatric disorders. Dependence associations with most mood disorders and generalized anxiety disorder also remained significant. Lifetime treatment- or help-seeking behavior was uncommon (8.1%, abuse; 37.9%, dependence) and was not associated with sociodemographic characteristics but was associated with psychiatric comorbidity.

Conclusions: Most individuals with drug use disorders have never been treated, and treatment disparities exist among those at high risk, despite substantial disability and comorbidity. Comorbidity of drug use disorders with other substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder, as well as dependence with mood disorders and generalized anxiety disorder, appears to be due in part to unique factors underlying each pair of these disorders studied. The persistence of low treatment rates despite the availability of effective treatments indicates the need for vigorous educational efforts for the public and professionals.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Alcohol-Related Disorders / epidemiology
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder / diagnosis
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder / epidemiology
  • Comorbidity
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Indians, North American / statistics & numerical data
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders / diagnosis
  • Mental Disorders / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / statistics & numerical data
  • Sex Factors
  • Substance-Related Disorders / diagnosis
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
  • United States / epidemiology