Ethnic/racial variations in blood pressure awareness, treatment, and control

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2007 May;9(5):345-54. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-6175.2007.06432.x.


Understanding the impact of patient factors on blood pressure (BP) management is an important step to developing interventions to improve cardiovascular health. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 was used to identify predictors of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control. An estimated 63.3 million (31.0%) US adults currently have BP exceeding 140/90 mm Hg, and prevalence is higher for blacks than for other racial/ethnic subgroups. Among antihypertensive medication-treated patients, 51.3% are controlled. Treated blacks and Mexican Americans have the lowest rates of BP control. Mexican Americans are 0.62 times as likely to be aware and 0.61 times as likely to be treated as white persons with hypertension. Compared with whites, treated Mexican Americans are 0.71 times as likely and treated blacks 0.59 times as likely to achieve BP control. Hypertension treatment and BP control in the United States remain suboptimal, and significant racial/ethnic disparities persist. Effective interventions targeting Mexican Americans and blacks as well as whites are essential to improving hypertension management.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • African Americans / statistics & numerical data
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Awareness
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Ethnic Groups / statistics & numerical data*
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Hispanic Americans / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Hypertension / ethnology*
  • Hypertension / physiopathology*
  • Hypertension / prevention & control
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Mexican Americans / statistics & numerical data
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prevalence
  • Research Design
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Antihypertensive Agents