The sequence of squash NADH:nitrate reductase and its relationship to the sequences of other flavoprotein oxidoreductases. A family of flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases

J Biol Chem. 1991 Dec 15;266(35):23542-7.


Nucleotide sequences were determined for cDNA clones for squash NADH:nitrate oxidoreductase (EC, which is one of the most completely characterized forms of this higher plant enzyme. An open reading frame of 2754 nucleotides began at the first ATG. The deduced amino acid sequence contains 918 residues, with a predicted Mr = 103,376. The amino acid sequence is very similar to sequences deduced for other higher plant nitrate reductases. The squash sequence has significant similarity to the amino acid sequences of sulfite oxidase, cytochrome b5, and NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase. Alignment of these sequences with that of squash defines domains of nitrate reductase that appear to bind its 3 prosthetic groups (molybdopterin, heme-iron, and FAD). The amino acid sequence of the FAD domain of squash nitrate reductase was aligned with FAD domain sequences of other NADH:nitrate reductases, NADH:cytochrome b5 reductases, NADPH:nitrate reductases, ferredoxin:NADP+ reductases, NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductases, NADPH:sulfite reductase flavoproteins, and Bacillus megaterium cytochrome P-450BM-3. In this multiple alignment, 14 amino acid residues are invariant, which suggests these proteins are members of a family of flavoenzymes. Secondary structure elements of the structural model of spinach ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase were used to predict the secondary structure of squash nitrate reductase and the other related flavoenzymes in this family. We suggest that this family of flavoenzymes, nearly all of which reduce a hemoprotein, be called "flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases."

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Base Sequence
  • Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide / metabolism
  • Flavoproteins / genetics*
  • Gene Library
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Multigene Family
  • NAD / metabolism
  • NADP / metabolism
  • Nitrate Reductase (NADH)
  • Nitrate Reductases / genetics*
  • Oxidoreductases / genetics*
  • Plants / enzymology*
  • Plants / genetics
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid


  • Flavoproteins
  • NAD
  • Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide
  • NADP
  • Oxidoreductases
  • Nitrate Reductases
  • Nitrate Reductase (NADH)

Associated data

  • GENBANK/M55199
  • GENBANK/M55200
  • GENBANK/M55201
  • GENBANK/M96682
  • GENBANK/S66610
  • GENBANK/S66768
  • GENBANK/S69489
  • GENBANK/S69493
  • GENBANK/S69544
  • GENBANK/S69906