Objective: Vildagliptin is a potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inhibitor that improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by increasing alpha- and beta-cell responsiveness to glucose. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of vildagliptin in patients with hepatic impairment compared with healthy subjects.
Methods: This was an open-label, parallel-group study in patients with mild (n = 6), moderate (n = 6) or severe (n = 4) hepatic impairment and healthy subjects (n = 6). All subjects received a single 100-mg oral dose of vildagliptin, and plasma concentrations of vildagliptin and its main pharmacologically inactive metabolite LAY151 were measured up to 36 h post-dose.
Results: Exposure to vildagliptin (AUC(0-infinity) and C(max)) decreased non-significantly by 20 and 30%, respectively, in patients with mild hepatic impairment [geometric mean ratio (90% CI): AUC(0-infinity), 0.80 (0.60, 1.06), p = 0.192; C(max), 0.70 (0.46, 1.05), p = 0.149]. Exposure to vildagliptin was also decreased non-significantly in patients with moderate hepatic impairment [-8% for AUC(0-infinity), geometric mean ratio (90% CI): 0.92 (0.69, 1.23), p = 0.630; -23% for C(max), geometric mean ratio (90% CI): 0.77 (0.51, 1.17), p = 0.293]. In patients with severe hepatic impairment, C(max) was 6% lower than that in healthy subjects [geometric mean ratio (90% CI): 0.94 (0.59, 1.49), p = 0.285], whereas AUC(0-infinity) was increased by 22% [geometric mean ratio (90% CI): 1.22 (0.89, 1.68), p = 0.816). Across the hepatic impairment groups, LAY151 AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) were increased by 29-84% and 24-63%, respectively, compared with healthy subjects. The single 100-mg oral dose of vildagliptin was well tolerated by patients with hepatic impairment.
Conclusions: There was no significant difference in exposure to vildagliptin in patients with mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment; therefore, no dose adjustment of vildagliptin is necessary in patients with hepatic impairment.