Extracorporeal gas exchange by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been established clinically in patients with acute lung failure. The interventional lung-assist (iLA) Membrane Ventilator device (Novalung) is a sophisticated representative of a new generation of pumpless extracorporeal lung-assist devices that are driven by the patient's cardiac output and therefore, do not require extracorporeal pump assistance. The system is characterized by a new membrane gas exchange system with optimized blood flow that is integrated in an arteriovenous bypass established by vascular cannulation. This particular pumpless extracorporeal lung-assist device was applied in 1800 patients for artificial lung assistance with easy use and low cost. This article reviews the present state of clinical Novalung device implementation focusing on encountered limitations and conceivable future developments in the field.