Four mammalian golgins are specifically targeted to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) membranes via their C-terminal GRIP domains. The TGN golgins, p230/golgin-245 and golgin-97, are recruited via the GTPase Arl1, whereas the TGN golgin GCC185 is recruited independently of Arl1. Here we show that GCC185 is localized to a region of the TGN distinct from Arl1 and plays an essential role in maintaining the organization of the Golgi apparatus. Using both small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA), we show that depletion of GCC185 in HeLa cells frequently resulted in fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Golgi apparatus fragments were dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and contained both cis and trans markers. Trafficking of anterograde and retrograde cargo was analysed over an extended period following GCC185 depletion. Early effects of GCC185 depletion included a perturbation in the distribution of the mannose-6-phosphate receptor and a block in shiga toxin trafficking to the Golgi apparatus, which occurred in parallel with the fragmentation of the Golgi ribbon. Internalized shiga toxin accumulated in Rab11-positive endosomes, indicating GCC185 is essential for transport between the recycling endosome and the TGN. In contrast, the plasma membrane-TGN recycling protein TGN38 was efficiently transported into GCC185-depleted Golgi apparatus fragments throughout a 96-h period, and anterograde transport of E-cadherin was functional until a late stage of GCC185 depletion. This study demonstrated (i) a more effective long-term depletion of GCC185 using miRNA than siRNA and (ii) a dual role for the GCC185 golgin in the regulation of endosome-to-TGN membrane transport and in the organization of the Golgi apparatus.