Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) in spontaneous multinuclear cells shows that both rat and human constitutive active/androstane receptors (CARs) are shuttling proteins with both nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and nuclear export signals (NESs). We previously identified two NLSs in rat CAR: NLS1 in the hinge region (residues 100-108) and NLS2 in the ligand-binding domain (residues 111-320). In the present study, we compared the intracellular localization signals between rat and human CARs. There was a marked difference in their intracellular localization in COS-7 cells because, unlike rat CAR, human CAR does not contain NLS1 due to an amino acid change at position 106. A CRM1-dependent leucine-rich NES, which is sensitive to an inhibitory effect of leptomycin B, was found in the cytoplasmic retention region previously identified within the ligand-binding domain of rat CAR (residues 220-258). We found that human CAR instead has a NES in the ligand-binding domain between residues 170 and 220. Also, we detected CRM1-independent C-terminal NESs between residues 317-358 of rat and human CARs. Removal of NLS1 by N-terminal truncation and mutation of xenochemical response signal caused rat CAR to localize in the cytoplasm of COS-7 cells, which we suspect is due to the masking of NLS2.