Background: Although catheter-induced left main coronary artery (LMCA) dissection is a rare complication of coronary catheterization, it is a common cause of periprocedural mortality. Emergent coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is the mainstay for managing this acute complication. However, hemodynamic deterioration may progress while patients await emergent CABG; consequently, a high postoperative mortality rate has been reported. Although the number of cases was small, prompt bail-out stenting for iatrogenic LMCA dissection had reportedly reversed this complication with favorable clinical outcomes.
Methods: This study included 13 cases of attempted stenting for iatrogenic LMCA dissection classified as grades C-F based on the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) classification system. Angiographic success, in-hospital mortality and long-term outcomes were analyzed.
Results: The incidence of iatrogenic LM dissection was 0.071%. Most of the patients were initially asymptomatic. Angiographic success was achieved in 11 of 13 patients (84.6%). Including one patient who underwent emergent CABG after a failed wiring attempt, two mortalities occurred in this series. Mean follow-up duration of the ten patients discharged was 30.1+/-11.8 months, and no cardiac deaths occurred. Follow-up angiogram of eight patients with a mean interval of 5.2+/-2.3 months after initial event demonstrated restenosis in three patients occurring either at the ostiums of the left anterior descending artery or left circumflex artery. Revascularization was performed on two patients.
Conclusions: Successful bail-out stenting resulted in good long-term survival and should be considered for initial management of iatrogenic LMCA dissection.