Shell-less chick embryo culture as an alternative in vitro model to investigate glucose-induced malformations in mammalian embryos

Rev Diabet Stud. Winter 2005;2(4):221-7. doi: 10.1900/RDS.2005.2.221. Epub 2006 Feb 10.

Abstract

We have developed a simple shell-less chick embryo culture system to study glucose-induced malformations. This system involves the culturing of chick embryos from the second day to the fifth day of incubation, with associated yolk and thick and thin albumen outside the egg shell. The system allows the observation of embryonic development of chicks in a glass bowl. Developing embryos at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h incubation, corresponding to the Hamberger Hamilton (HH) stages from 7 to 21, were treated with two concentrations of glucose (50 mM and 100 mM) for 24 h. Glucose treatment resulted in a mortality rate of over 70% in younger embryos. Furthermore, a variety of malformations such as retarded growth, abnormal heart development, macrosomia, exencephaly, etc. were observed in older embryos, which were similar to those reported in mammalian embryos as a consequence of diabetic pregnancy. The glucose-induced malformations were found to be concentration- and stage-dependent, thus emphasizing the roles of the degree of hyperglycemia and the stage of embryonic development in diabetic growth anomalies. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the present system can be used (i) for experiments at early stages of chick embryo development and (ii) for assessing the effects of acute glucose toxicity similar to those reported for mammalian embryos in a hyperglycemic environment.